Archives

  • 2018-07
  • 2018-10
  • 2018-11
  • 2019-04
  • 2019-05
  • 2019-06
  • 2019-07
  • 2019-08
  • 2019-09
  • 2019-10
  • 2019-11
  • 2019-12
  • 2020-01
  • 2020-02
  • 2020-03
  • 2020-04
  • 2020-05
  • 2020-06
  • 2020-07
  • 2020-08
  • 2020-09
  • 2020-10
  • 2020-11
  • 2020-12
  • 2021-01
  • 2021-02
  • 2021-03
  • 2021-04
  • 2021-05
  • 2021-06
  • 2021-07
  • 2021-08
  • 2021-09
  • 2021-10
  • 2021-11
  • 2021-12
  • 2022-01
  • 2022-02
  • 2022-03
  • 2022-04
  • 2022-05
  • 2022-06
  • 2022-07
  • 2022-08
  • 2022-09
  • 2022-10
  • 2022-11
  • 2022-12
  • 2023-01
  • 2023-02
  • 2023-03
  • 2023-04
  • 2023-05
  • 2023-06
  • 2023-08
  • 2023-09
  • 2023-10
  • 2023-11
  • 2023-12
  • 2024-01
  • 2024-02
  • 2024-03
  • 2024-04
  • 2024-05
  • Zalcitabine In liver the essential organ of lipoprotein synt

    2024-04-23

    In liver, the essential organ of lipoprotein synthesis, ACL plays a fundamental role in lipogenesis and steroidogenesis by supplying cytosolic Zalcitabine to both pathways. By using a tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate (citrate) to produce acetyl CoA, ACL can be seen as an important bridge between carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Intramitochondrial citrate is transported via the so-called citrate shuttle to the cytosol, where it encounters ACL (Fig. 1). Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC—the rate-limiting enzyme in de novo fatty acid biosynthesis) carboxylates acetyl CoA to produce malonyl CoA. Then, through repetitions of the 4-reaction cycle of de novo lipogenesis, palmitic acid is synthesized. Modifications of this primary product lead to other (shorter, longer, or unsaturated) fatty acids. Depending on the set of biosynthetic enzymes that is predominantly expressed, acetyl CoA from ACL can also be used for cholesterol synthesis: HMG-CoA is formed by condensation of acetyl CoA and acetoacetyl CoA (catalyzed by HMG-CoA synthase) and later reduced by HMG-CoA reductase to mevalonate. Mevalonate is then converted into 3-isopentenyl pyrophosphate by 3 consecutive reactions requiring ATP. Multiple extension steps involving iterative addition of extra 5-carbon modules leads to squalene, which is cyclized to form lanosterol. The removal of 3 methyl groups plus reduction of one double bond and migration of another double bond in lanosterol finally yields cholesterol (Fig. 1).
    ACL and AMPK have opposite effects on lipid biosynthesis The enzyme 5′-adenosine monophosphate–activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine/threonine kinase that works as a sensor for cellular depletion of ATP, whose activation results in the simultaneous shutting down of several energy-consuming pathways and in the activation of energy-generating pathways. Activation of the AMPK pathway also influences a plethora of cellular functions through phosphorylation of other enzymes and transcription factors, which ultimate leads to changes in expression of multiple genes. Among these target genes are the rate-limiting enzymes for steroidogenesis and fatty acid synthesis (HMG-CoA reductase and ACC), but also enzymes with a crucial role in gluconeogenesis and liver glucose production, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase. The role of AMPK in lipid metabolism also involves regulation of mitochondrial long-chain fatty acids oxidation. Malonyl CoA, the product of ACC, is a strong inhibitor of carnitin-palmitoil transferase 1 (CPT-1), an enzyme responsible for fatty acid transport into the mitochondrial matrix for their subsequent beta-oxidation. Phosphorylation of ACC by AMPK reduces malonyl CoA production in the vicinity of CPT-1, resulting in its disinhibition and in increased transport and oxidation of long-chain fatty acids. Thus, ACL activation provides the building blocks for fatty acid biosynthesis, whereas AMPK activation stimulates their degradation.
    Inhibition of ACL Among several ACL inhibitors that were initially tested, ETC-1002 (8-hydroxy-2,2,14,14-tetramethylpentadecaned–ioic acid) is the one currently in a most advanced stage of clinical development. The molecule was first reported in 2004 as ESP55016, after a search for long-chain hydrocarbon derivatives with positive effects on lipid and/or metabolic profiles in vivo. Initial experiments demonstrated the ability of ETC-1002 to inhibit fatty acid and sterol synthesis and to stimulate palmitate oxidation in primary rat hepatocytes, as well as to lower plasma non–high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides, and free fatty acids in a rat model of obesity and metabolic syndrome (fa/fa). Furthermore, in this initial set of experiments, ETC-1002 also reduced weight gain and insulin resistance, as reflected by lower fasting levels of both serum insulin and glucose. No direct effect of ACL inhibition on HMG-CoA reductase levels or activity was observed. The increase in fatty acid oxidation was CPT-1 dependent, but the degree of AMPK or ACC phosphorylation did not change significantly, suggesting that ETC-1002 increased CPT-1 only through reduced malonyl CoA availability. Nonetheless, more recent studies in chow-fed rats did find an increase in phospho-AMPK and phospho-ACC after 2 weeks of treatment with ETC-1002 (30 mg/kg/d), and also a transient (10 min) increase in phosphorylation of AMPK, ACC, and HMG-CoA reductase in primary hepatocytes in vitro. ETC-1002 inhibits de novo sterol and fatty acid synthesis in primary rat hepatocytes, inducing dose-dependent reductions cellular acetyl CoA, malonyl CoA, and HMG-CoA, and simultaneously increasing cellular citrate. These changes start to occur just 5 minutes after administration of the drug.